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The Impact of a GenCyber Camp on Inservice Teachers’ TPACK

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Listen and learn : Research paper
Lecture presentation


Tuesday, December 1, 12:45–1:30 pm PST (Pacific Standard Time)
Presentation 3 of 3
Other presentations:
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Dr. Kristin Cook  
Dr. Jessica Ivy  
Dr. Kevin Thomas  

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a week-long GenCyber security camp on inservice teachers’ TPACK. Participants consisted of 37 middle and high school teachers who were pre and post assessed using the TPACK Developmental Survey. Data analysis will be completed in December 2019.

Audience: Curriculum/district specialists, Teachers, Teacher education/higher ed faculty
Attendee devices: Devices not needed
Topic: Teacher education
Grade level: 6-12
Subject area: STEM/STEAM, Inservice teacher education
ISTE Standards: For Educators:
Designer
  • Use technology to create, adapt and personalize learning experiences that foster independent learning and accommodate learner differences and needs.
Citizen
  • Mentor students in safe, legal and ethical practices with digital tools and the protection of intellectual rights and property.
Learner
  • Stay current with research that supports improved student learning outcomes, including findings from the learning sciences.
Additional detail: ISTE author presentation

Proposal summary

Framework

Review of Literature
 The GenCyber camp works with the participating teachers to build their technology literacy in the area of GenCyber Principles and cyber security. One way we strive to accomplish this is by implementing the Davies (2011) framework for developing technology skills and expertise. This framework “involves three levels: awareness, praxis, and phronesis” (p. 48). The awareness stage requires teachers to become aware of the basic technologies available to them and “the basic purposes and functions involved” (p. 48). At the praxis level, teachers are increasing their expertise in using the technology and are able to complete simple tasks. This level often involves expert models and practice “involving simulated problem solving activities” (p. 49). Finally, at the phronesis level, teachers become adept at using the technology and can answer the question, “Why do I use or not use this technology in this specific situation?” (p. 49). Teachers attending the GenCyber camp are introduced to each technology and GenCyber Principle by experienced models and provide opportunities to interact with the technology, both of which help to build participants’ self-efficacy (Somekh, 2008; Ertmer, 2005). Finally, teachers develop a content-based lesson plan implementing the GenCyber Principles and one or more of the technologies.
The GenCyber camp also utilizes the TPACK framework to build teachers’ technology literacy in the area of cyber security. The TPACK framework, developed by Koehler and Mishra, maintains that in order to effectively integrate technology into instruction, teachers need to have a deep understanding of how each of the components (e.g., technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge) “interact, constrain, and afford each other” (Koehler, Mishra, Kereluik, Tae, and Graham, 2014). The TPACK framework depends on “a consideration of the interactions among technology, content, and pedagogy” (Ertmer & Ottenbriet-Leftwich, 2010, p. 259). Like Davies framework, in order to accomplish this, teachers must understand “(a) the technology tools themselves, combined with (b) the specific affordances of each tool that, when used to teach content, enable difficult concepts to be learned more readily, thus resulting in the achievement of meaningful student outcomes” (Angeli & Valanies, 2009, cited in Ertmer & Ottenbriet-Leftwich, p. 259).
 Prior research on GenCyber professional development activities have demonstrated a positive impact on teachers’ understanding and application of TPACK. A 2016 GenCyber workshop (Ivy, Lee, Fanz, & Crumpton, 2019) showed significant growth in participating teachers’ TPACK.

Methods

Methods
Research Design
 Guided by the recommendations of Creswell (2013), we used the survey approach to investigate the impact of the weeklong GenCyber camp on inservice teachers’ Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Survey research was the preferred method of data collection because of its economy, rapid turnaround time, and the standardization of the data (Babbie, 2012). Participating teachers completed a pre and post assessment. The survey is discussed in the Data Source section.
Participants
The instructional team included three primary instructors (two classroom teachers and one university faculty member) and two assistants (pre-service teachers). Participants were recruited primarily from two school systems. The first is a large, diverse, urban system with more than 100,000 students. The second is a large private system with over 20,000 students. Information and applications were distributed through the Professional Development Coordinators in each system. Applicants from other school systems heard about the camp through word of mouth. Sixty-one teachers applied to participate in the camp. Participants were selected from applicants with attention to establishing a diverse group of educators who serve across various systems. The initial goal of the camp was to reach 40 teachers, 20 per week; however, 37 teachers participated, 21 in the first week and 16 in the second week. For each week, approximately 50% of the participants were middle school teachers and 50% high school teachers. Participants represented 11 school systems/districts within driving distance of Louisville, Kentucky. Data Source and Collection
The TPACK Developmental Model Self-Assessment Survey was co-developed and adapted by the second author and based on the themes and subthemes of the TPACK Standards and Development Model (Niess, et al., 2009). The TPACK Self-Assessment survey included 11 categories, adapted from the themes and subthemes of the TPACK development model. For each category, five levels of descriptors provided insight into the TPACK levels for participants. The five levels were Recognizing, Accepting, Adapting, Exploring, and Advancing. Each level was correlated with a numerical value from one to five, and the sum of the criteria provided an indexed TPACK rating for each iteration of the TPACK Self-Assessment survey. All participants completed the survey prior to the start of the camp and at the end of the camp. In both instances, participants accessed the online Google Forms survey. No login was required, and participants completed the survey in one sitting. The approximate time for completion was 10-15 minutes, depending on the individual. Data was exported from Google Forms as an Excel spreadsheet. The resulting data will be analyzed, and descriptive statistics will be calculated to identify frequencies and means; appropriate statistical tests will be administered as needed. Data analysis will be completed by November 2019.

Results

The Results, Discussion, and Implications sections will be completed in December 2019.

Importance

The Results, Discussion, and Implications sections will be completed in December 2019.

References

References
Babbie, E. R. (2012). The basics of social research. Cengage Learning.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Incorporated.
Davies, R. S. (2011). Understanding technology literacy: A framework for evaluating educational technology integration. TechTrends, 55(5), 45-52.
Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.
Ertmer, P. A. & Ottenbreit-Lefwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255-284.
Ivy, J., Lee, S. B., Franz, D., & Crumpton, J. (2019). Seeding Cybersecurity Workforce Pathways With Secondary Education. Computer, 52(3), 67-75.
Niess, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Shafer, K. G., Driskell, S. O., Harper, S. R., Johnston, C., & Kersaint, G. (2009). Mathematics teacher TPACK standards and development model. Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education, 9(1), 4-24.
Somekh, B. (2008). Factors affecting teachers’ pedagogical adoption of ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 449–460). New York: Springer.

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Presenters

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Dr. Kristin Cook, Associate Dean School of Education
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Dr. Jessica Ivy, Bellarmine University
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Dr. Kevin Thomas, Bellarmine University

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