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Exemplary Practices of Principals in F2F to Virtual Learning During COVID-19

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Listen and learn : Research paper
Lecture presentation

Research papers are a pairing of two 20 minute presentations followed by a 5 minute Q & A.
This is presentation 2 of 2, scroll down to see more details.

Other presentations in this group:

Dr. Jennifer Courduff  
Dr. Susan Poyo  
Dr. Dennis McElroy  
Dr. Peter Hessling  

Learn about the current research on administrators' practices while leading their schools in the pivot from face-to-face to virtual learning during COVID-19. Explore various leaders’ approaches to site-level technology implementation and learn about effective leadership approaches to advancing technology in education.

Audience: Principals/head teachers, Teacher education/higher ed faculty, Technology coordinators/facilitators
Attendee devices: Devices not needed
Topic: Leadership
ISTE Standards: For Educators:
Learner
  • Set professional learning goals to explore and apply pedagogical approaches made possible by technology and reflect on their effectiveness.
For Education Leaders:
Connected Learner
  • Develop the skills needed to lead and navigate change, advance systems and promote a mindset of continuous improvement for how technology can improve learning.
  • Use technology to regularly engage in reflective practices that support personal and professional growth.
Additional detail: ISTE author presentation

Proposal summary

Framework

We will utilize a multiple case study design that seeks to understand the roles of administrators who have provided exemplary technology leadership during the pivot to virtual learning. Findings of this study will help provide information about effective practices and potential pitfalls for other administrators. Our goal is to include exemplary administrators across the nation who have been identified as such through recommendations from superintendents, local education agencies, and recent ISTE award winners. We will use a multiple case study design in order to effectively analyze the roles, actions, and practices of administrators, teacher focus groups, and Area Education Agency technology consultants regarding technology integration during Covid-19 (Patton, 2002). All interviews and focus groups will be conducted via teleconferencing tools, recorded, and written notes will be kept. Other data sources include newspaper articles, technology support from education technology organizations, and technology team documentation collected from school, community, and county resources.

Methods

Research question: What are administrators’ experiences and perceptions regarding technology integration in K-12 education?
Sub questions:
Roles: What are administrators’ roles in technology integration in K-12 education?
Practice: What do administrators value about technology in K-12 education?
Actions: What actions do administrators take that lead to successful technology integration in K-12 education?
Design
We will utilize a multiple case study design that seeks to understand the roles of administrators who have provided exemplary technology leadership during the pivot to virtual learning. Findings of this study will help provide information about effective practices and potential pitfalls for other administrators. Our goal is to include exemplary administrators across the nation who have been identified as such through recommendations from superintendents, local education agencies, and recent ISTE award winners. We will use a multiple case study design in order to effectively analyze the roles, actions, and practices of administrators, teacher focus groups, and Area Education Agency technology consultants regarding technology integration during Covid-19 (Patton, 2002). All interviews and focus groups will be conducted via teleconferencing tools, recorded, and written notes will be kept. Other data sources include newspaper articles, technology support from education technology organizations, and technology team documentation collected from school, community, and county resources.

Due to the current impact that the Covid-19 virus could have on researchers and participants, all interviews and focus groups will be conducted via teleconferencing tools, recorded, and written notes will be kept. Other data sources include newspaper articles, technology support from education technology organizations, and technology team documentation collected from school, community, and county resources.

Participant information
The study will take place online using a password protected Zoom meeting room through which recorded interviews and focus groups will take place. A call for participation will be disseminated through the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Teacher Educator Network. The invitation will be housed within the ISTE Commons, ISTE Facebook page, and ISTE Twitter account. Recent ISTE Leadership award winners will be contacted by the research team members and invited to participate in the study.

In order to contact non-award winning exemplary administrators, the primary researcher will work with ISTE leadership to post Recruitment Letters and Informed Consent documents in the ISTE commons. Additionally, links to Recruitment Letters and Informed Consent documents will be disseminated through monthly newsletters of ISTE Professional Learning Networks (PLNs).

Data collection
Recorded interviews with the administrators and teacher focus groups will be used to gain perspective about the administrator and administrative practices in relation to virtual teaching and learning implementation. Interviews with the Area Education Agency technology consultant will help provide information from an external viewpoint. Finally, available documentation relating to administrative practices, pertinent events, and changes to the technology programs at each school site will be collected and analyzed to provide additional insight about this case (Creswell, 2007).

The following questions will be used to help guide interviews in this study:
1. What do you value about the use of technology in education?
2. What did you originally perceive as your role in the technology implementation
process?
3. How did this differ from what your role actually became during the pandemic?
4. What initial actions did you take to communicate your vision regarding the pivot to virtual learning?
What purpose did this serve for you? What was the goal(s) of the communication?
5. What pre-assessment of teacher skills was/is done?
6. Levels of regional/state coordination?
7. How did you deal with teacher issues such as access, working from home or at the school site, managing students online?
8. What professional development did you provide for teachers, parents, and support personnel?
9. How did you identify the potential impact of virtual learning with technology in your school? How did
you focus on developing the knowledge base in preparation for integration?

Training the research team
The research team will meet to discuss standardized protocol in which all researchers will perform interviews and focus groups in the same way. The researchers will also be trained in the procedures of the study so that there is a standardized protocol that all the researchers will follow to ensure human subjects rights are protected including reminding them of the voluntary nature of the study and their right to stop at any time and that no identifying information will be included with their responses.

Data analysis
We will approach data coding and analysis first by recognizing our own experiences and possible biases. We will meet as a team and develop a list of experiences that might influence our coding and analysis. This list will be referenced by each team member throughout the process. Recorded interviews and focus groups for each case will be individually coded by team members. We will meet twice a month to discuss preliminary codes and then cross code for significant statements. We will meet to discuss combining the statements into roles, practices, and action themes by case. Then, we will do a cross case analysis in order to determine similarities and differences between cases. We will report findings first by case, then holistically across cases (Creswell, 2007).

Results

Data will be collected from October, 2020 through March, 2021. Data analysis will be conducted in March of 2021. We expect to complete the study and prepare the research publication to be submitted to JRTE in May of 2021. We expect to discover how and why administrators affect decision-making and implementation of technology at the school level. Further, we expect to gain an understanding of administrators’ knowledge of the ISTE standards and how the standards influence the approach to technology integration at the site level.

Importance

The results of this research could influence how knowledge of the ISTE standards is communicated to all stakeholders within the educational community. Further, study findings could inform teacher preparation programs in preparing new teachers for the variety of technology resources available to them at different school settings. Finally, results could be useful to educational leaders, superintendents, and policy makers in how we might move forward in the national adoption of the ISTE standards in educational decision making.

References

References
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Sage.

Courduff, J., Kiekel, J., Bedesem, P., Poyo, S., McElroy, D., & Hessling, P. (2020). Where are we now? Technology integration in teacher preparation. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, [in review].

Kurland, H. (2019). School leadership that leads to a climate of care. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 22(6), 706–730.

Lac, V. T., & Mansfield, K. C. (2018). What do students have to do with educational leadership? Making a case for centering student voice. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 13(1), 38–58.

Lee, E., & Hannafin, M. (2016). A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: own it, learn it, and share it. Educational Technology Research & Development, 64(4), 707–734. doi- 10.1007/s11423-015-9422-5.

Ma, L., & Lee, C. (2019). Investigating the adoption of MOOCs: A technology–user–environment perspective. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(1), 89–98. DOI 10.1111/jcal.12314.

Maas, T., Jochim, A., Gross, B., & Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE). (2018). Mind the gap: Will all students benefit from 21st century learning? In Center on Reinventing Public Education. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

McElroy, D. W. (2004). The magic bullet: The effective administrator's roles during the implementation of technology in K-12 education. [Doctoral dissertation: Iowa State University]. Iowa State University Digital Repository.

Neokleous, G. (2019). Interpreting technologically fluent classrooms: Digital natives’ attitudes towards the use of technology in primary schools in Norway. In Research-publishing.net. Research-Publishing.net.

Ozolnieks, M. (2019). Parental perspectives on twenty-first century learning environments in private middle schools: a phenomenological study. Liberty University. Lynchburg, VA.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Sage.

Stevenson, M., Hedberg, J., Highfield, K., & Diao, M. (2015). Visualizing solutions: Apps as cognitive stepping-stones in the learning process. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 13(5), 366–379.

Trapani, B., & Annunziato, A. (2018). Using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) to Accelerate Understanding by Design implementation. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 21.

Weidman, J., & Wright, G. (2019). Promoting construction education in K-12 by using an experiential, student-centered, STEM-infused construction unit. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 79(1), 8–12.

Zhai, X., Zhang, M., Li, M., & Zhang, X. (2019). Understanding the relationship between levels of mobile technology use in high school physics classrooms and the learning outcome. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 750–766.

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Presenters

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Dr. Jennifer Courduff, Azusa Pacific University

Dr. Jennifer Courduff is a Professor of Education at Azusa Pacific University where she develops courses and teaches in the Master of Arts: Learning and Technology program. She is an active member of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), and advocates for the needs of special education teachers in several professional learning communities. Her research and presentations focus on technology integration within inclusive learning environments and mobile learning.

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Dr. Susan Poyo, Franciscan University
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Dr. Dennis McElroy, Graceland University

Dr. Dennis McElroy is Professor Emeritus from Graceland University in Lamoni, Iowa. He is the 2020-21 ISTE Teacher Education Network PLN President. Dennis is an Apple Educator, technology advocate, and passionate teacher educator. His career has included time serving as a high school science teacher, technology director, Iowa DOE technology consultant, school board member, and university professor. In his free time he is a devoted father and grandfather as well as a gigging musician.

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Dr. Peter Hessling, North Carolina State University

I’ve been teaching at North Carolina State University for over 25 years, including almost 15 years of teaching online in some form or another. My Ph.D. is in Foundations of Education from UNC Chapel Hill, so I come at technology entirely from the humanities. My research is in the history of education, online teaching and collaboration, and pre-service teacher beliefs. I’ve been on the ISTE TEN leadership team for several years, usually participating heavily in the ISTE TEN Playground. Occasionally, I like to make short class videos using puppets.

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