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Coding for All Teachers: Scratch, Makey Makey and CoSpaces

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Participate and share : Poster

Dr. Junko Yamamoto  
See how students in an instructional technology class created a basic coding using Scratch, coded an animation story and then used Makey Makey to produce something fun. They then used Makey Makey to create materials for their subject areas. Later, they coded an augmented reality world using CoSpaces.

Audience: Principals/head teachers, Teachers, Teacher education/higher ed faculty
Skill level: Beginner
Attendee devices: Devices useful
Attendee device specification: Smartphone: Android, iOS, Windows
Laptop: Chromebook, Mac, PC
Tablet: Android, iOS, Windows
Topic: Innovative learning environments
Grade level: PK-12
ISTE Standards: For Educators:
  • Use technology to create, adapt and personalize learning experiences that foster independent learning and accommodate learner differences and needs.
  • Foster a culture where students take ownership of their learning goals and outcomes in both independent and group settings.

Proposal summary

Purpose & objective

Participants will see an instructional example of how future teachers of English, social studies, math, science, and Spanish coded to make classroom materials. The instructor used Technology Acceptance Model. This model shows that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness influence the decision to adopt technology. Psychological factors, such as anxiety and lack of self-efficacy affect perceived ease of use. In order to reduce the anxiety, the instructor introduced the technology in the form of play.

Day 1:
Lecture on coding and how it is used in education
Step-by-step demonstration and hands-on practice on Scratch.
Homework: Explore different features of Scratch and freely make something. Reflect on what you have discovered.

Day 2:
Lecture: Elements of a good story
Lecture: What is a storyboard and why do you need it?
Scratch Storytelling
In-class Activity:
Co-write a story
Skills practice – remixing a sprite, making a sprite, animating a sprite, changing a scene, recording your story, drawing a backdrop. Using Garage Band to create a background music

Day 3:
Develop a good story and make the storyboard

Day 4:
Code the story to make an animation.

Day 5:
Lecture: Pedagogical reasons to use Makey Makey
Skills practice: Code a fruit piano
Show & Tell: Other ideas for combining coding and Makey Makey

Day 6:
Make something for fun using Scratch and Makey Makey

Day 7:
Show & Tell and Discussion – How is Makey Makey used in different subject areas? As you watch examples, brainstorm how you may be able to convert ideas to your project in a different content.

Day 8 & 9:
Use Makey Makey and Scratch to create something for your subject area

[activities that do not use coding took place for 12 class periods]

Augmented reality – CoSpaces
As a part of CoSpaces, future educators revisited coding embedded in CoSpaces.

Reflections by the education majors in the class indicate that they started to build confidence, even though they were anxious about the idea of coding. Reflections also show that they begin to see how coding can be used in their subject areas.


Introduction to Technology Acceptance Model. A survey tool will be used to facilitate the audience’s participation. (5 minutes)

Explain the importance of play, celebrating difficulties, reflecting on troubleshooting – focus on the process rather than the end-product. A survey tool will be used to facilitate the audience’s participation. (2 minutes)

Show the audience the instructional plan, sample products, and reflections (20 minutes)

Q & A (3 minutes)

Supporting research

Androutsos, A. & Brinia, V. (2019). Developing and piloting a pedagogy for teaching innovation, collaboration, and co-creation in secondary education based on design thinking, digital transformation, and entrepreneurship. Education Sciences, 9(2), 113. Retrieved from

Çakiroglu, Ü. Gökoglu, S., & Öztürk, M. (2017). Pre-service computer teachers’ tendencies towards the use of mobile technologies: A technology acceptance model perspective. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 20 (1). 175-190.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-339.

Joo, Y J., Park, S., & Lim, E. (2018). Factors influencing preservice teachers’ intention to use technology: TPACK, teacher self-efficacy, and technology acceptance model. Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 48-59.

Krueger, N. (2019, April). Innovate, iterate, educate: Sometimes teachers’ small ideas make the biggest difference. Empowered Learner, 2 (4), 17-21.

Kukul,V., Ünal, M., Karataş, S., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Yılmaz, A. & Ömeroğlu, E. (2018). Analysis of teachers opinions in the context of acceptance of technology, Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty, 19(3), 2055-2067. doi: 10.29299/kefad.2018.19.03.007

McGlynn, K., & Kelly, J. (2019, September). Making it work: Incorporating design thinking into all areas of instruction to fit the needs of unique learners. Science Scope, 43 (2), 20-25. doi: 10.2505/4/ss19_043_02_20

McQuinn. C. (2018). The brain science of making. School Library Journal. Retrieved from

Muilenburg, L. Y., & Berge, Z. L. (2015). Revisiting teacher preparation: Responding to technology transience in the educational setting. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 16 (2), 93-105.

Nadlifatin, R., Ardiansyahmiraja, B., Persada, S. F., Redi, A. A. N. P., & Lin, S. (2020). The measurement of university students’ intention to use blended learning system through Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) at developed and developing regions: Lessons learned from Taiwan and Indonesia. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15 (9), 219-230. Doi:10.3991/ijet.v15i09.11517

Trust, T. Maloy, R. W., & Edwards, S. (2018). Learning through making: Emerging and expanding design for college classes. TechTrends, 62, 19-28. doi: 10.1007/s11528-017-0214-0

Valente, J. A., & Blikstein, P. (2019). Maker education: Where is the knowledge construction? Constructivist Foundations, 14(3), 252-262.
Woods, A., & Baroutsis, A. (2020). What’s all the full about makerspaces and making? Practical Literacy: The Early & Primary Years, 25(2), 39-41.

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Dr. Junko Yamamoto, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania

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