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Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Critical Component in Designing Technology-Infused Preparation Programs

Pennsylvania Convention Center, 121BC

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University of Wyoming
Mia Kim Williams, PhD is an Assistant Professor and Doctoral Program Coordinator in Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Wyoming. Known for her work in innovative and critical pedagogy and community engagement, Mia works with practicing and preservice teachers and doctoral students interested in promoting technology infusion in educational contexts. Mia's current projects include game design as critical pedagogy, master educator competency program, and designing transformative digital learning spaces to promote active learning. She is a past ISTE Board Member and Community Leader. Mia worked previously as a classroom teacher of high school English and earth science.
Research Professor
University of North Texas
Rhonda Christensen, Ph.D. is Research Professor in the Learning Technologies Department in the College of Information at the University of North Texas, USA. She is also a Lecturer of an educational technology course at the University of Texas Dallas. She is a co-director of the Institute for the Integration of Technology into Teaching and Learning at UNT and PI and Project Director for an NSF grant using a simulated teaching environment to mitigate possible implicit biases. Her research interests are the impact of technology integration in education and using a simulated teaching environment to support teacher professional development.
Professor Emeritus
Graceland University
Dr. Dennis McElroy is Professor Emeritus from Graceland University in Lamoni, Iowa. He was the 2020-21 ISTE Teacher Education Network PLN President. Dennis is an Apple Educator, technology advocate, and passionate teacher educator. His career has included time serving as a high school science teacher, technology director, Iowa DOE technology consultant, school board member, and university professor. In his free time he is a devoted father and grandfather as well as a gigging musician.
Associate Professor
New Mexico State University
Dr. David Rutledge is an Associate Professor of Educational Design and Learning Technology. His focus is on Curriculum and Instruction as related to educational equity and diversity. He has been the coordinator for the Curriculum & Instruction online doctoral program since 2004. This online doctoral program coordination includes working with educational professionals at a global level to explore educational goals across multiple disciplines.

Session description

Learn about the factors influencing technology (attitudes, beliefs, intentions, support, policies, resources, etc.) and consider how connecting self-efficacy development to the components that teacher preparation programs embed in their courses and experiences enhances technology infusion. The presenters also will talk about design implications and offer examples connected to the literature.


Developing the self-efficacy of teacher candidates within preparation programs is significant to ensuring candidates become successful classroom teachers. The design implications presented in this research promote creating high teacher self-efficacy through technology-infused experiences.

Teacher Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy is rooted in Bandura’s (1986) social cognitive theory that supports individuals as their own change agents. Self-efficacy is the belief we have in our own abilities, specifically our ability to meet the challenges ahead of us and complete a task successfully. According to Bandura (1993), self-efficacy is a good predictor of behavior. While teacher self-efficacy is more broadly defined for many areas of teaching, this paper focuses on how self-efficacy impacts the integration of technology into the classroom. Technology self-efficacy has been defined as confidence in one’s competence (Christensen & Knezek, 2017) and is one important factor that influences the effectiveness of teaching with technology (Hoy, Hoy & Davis, 2009). Four areas in which teachers tend to develop their self-efficacy include past successes or failures, seeing peers’ successes or failures, suggestions from other people, and their stress level toward the task (Kwon et al.,2019). Oliver and Shapiro (1993) found teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs to be indicators of success for technology integration. Teachers’ beliefs about technology can impact the integration of technology into their teaching practices (Compeau, Higgins, & Huff, 1999; Ertmer, 2005).

Technology Integration Frameworks
Technology Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a framework for technology integration intended to form a more integrated approach for three kinds of knowledge required for teaching: technology, pedagogy, and content (Thompson & Mishra, 2007–2008).

The Synthesis of Quality Data (SQD) Model was developed with the intention of providing an evidence-based model to inform teacher education programs. Tondeur et al. (2012) reviewed more than a dozen qualitative studies in order to create a model that includes components necessary to prepare teacher candidates to integrate technology.

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This literature review was developed through narrative and integrative methods (Baker, 2016, Torraco, 2005). It centered on teacher self-efficacy in technology integration within teaching and learning. The authors narrowed the research review to publications in the past ten years (2012- 2022) to find the most current information on how teacher self-efficacy for technology integration has been approached throughout the teacher development process. The search terms were “teacher self-efficacy” and “preservice (or pre-service) teacher” or “teacher candidate” and “technology” for the range of 2012 to 2022. Articles from two databases, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) (N =349) and Learning and Technology Library (LearnTechLib) (N =127), were identified. Following the initial search, we excluded duplicate articles, articles published in languages other than English, and articles originally published outside the search year parameters of 2012 to 2022. We included articles if they were original research articles with quantitative or qualitative results, program evaluations, or research-based best practices written for a practitioner audience and included the search terms. Then, we excluded articles that did not address topics related to teacher self-efficacy, that were not related to teacher candidates’ or teacher educators’ development, or informed teacher preparation programs. The final collection of relevant articles contained 201 unique items. The authors reviewed articles from the collection, which are represented by the themes and articles cited in the paper. Additionally, authors used research articles that were found from citations within the selected articles, using the ancestry method when an author required additional information or verification in analyzing a developing topic (Torronto & Remington, 2020).

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The results include a discussion of how high teacher self-efficacy positively influences classroom practices and a table of design implications for teacher preparation programs interested in creating opportunities for teacher candidates to create teacher self-efficacy for technology integration.
Suggestions for enhancing teacher self-efficacy through teacher preparation programs are to create practical opportunities to see examples and apply powerful uses of technology in teaching and learning contexts as well as make connections for teacher candidates to work with experienced teachers who integrate technology into learning experiences.

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A technology-infused teacher preparation program requires purposeful design. Such a program intentionally implements technology infusion (‘the what’) to create transformative learning experiences throughout the program experiences (‘the where’) for the purpose of growing the craft of teacher candidates so they are well-prepared classroom teachers with the skills (‘the why’), This presentation engages all in conversations about the future of teacher preparation programs and the influences that necessitate technology infusion with the program for the best development of teacher candidates.

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Representative Reference List
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Session specifications

Teacher education
Grade level:
Community college/university
Teacher education/higher ed faculty
Attendee devices:
Devices not needed
Subject area:
Preservice teacher education
ISTE Standards:
For Educators:
  • Stay current with research that supports improved student learning outcomes, including findings from the learning sciences.
  • Use technology to create, adapt and personalize learning experiences that foster independent learning and accommodate learner differences and needs.
  • Design authentic learning activities that align with content area standards and use digital tools and resources to maximize active, deep learning.