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Research papers are a pairing of two 18 minute presentations followed by 18 minutes of Discussion led by a Discussant, with remaining time for Q & A.
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Foulger (2020) defined technology infusion as “A program-deep and program-wide approach within a teacher preparation program to help teacher candidates learn how to leverage technology in their future teaching (i.e., in PK-12 classrooms)” (p. 6). Building capacity for technology infusion requires consideration of many organizational factors including the design of coursework and instructional practices of faculty (Clausen, 2020). A technology-infused teacher preparation program (TPP) embeds technology use throughout all aspects of a teacher candidate's experiences while in their program. This includes providing models of practice in their participation in university coursework, methods courses, practicum, and student teaching experiences. Key stakeholders throughout the process of learning to teach with technology are teacher educators.
This study utilized an integrative literature review methodology (Russel, 2005; Torraco, 2005). Data collection and analysis followed the six-step procedures of integrative review: 1) formulate purpose and/or review question, 2) search and select literature, 3) quality appraisal, 4) analysis and synthesis, 5) discussion and conclusion, and 6) dissemination of findings (Toronto & Remington, 2020). The authors first decided on the research purpose and established search and inclusion criteria. The authors initially screened 668 papers. A secondary review using inclusion criteria narrowed the search to 64 selected articles for analysis. These articles were published between 2012 to 2022 and examine how teacher educators model technology use. During the analysis and synthesis phase, the 64 included studies were analyzed and classified using the thematic synthesis process for literature review. More specifically, both deductive and inductive thematic analyses were used (Braun & Clark, 2006). For each study, a researcher read the full text and coded the study, using predetermined codes created during the initial literature review. Then, the researchers 1) abstracted the findings into common themes, 2) explored how the themes relate to each other, 3) integrated themes into a coherent whole, and 4) refined and refocused (Cronin & George, 2020).
Our results showed that ample empirical evidence demonstrated modeling’s positive impacts. Nevertheless, modeling alone is insufficient to support teacher candidates in designing and teaching content-specific and technology-integrated instructions. Furthermore, there exist disparities in the quantity and quality of faculty’s and cooperating teachers’ modeling practices. Overall, these results underscore a more holistic approach to designing learning experiences that model technology integration. Thus, we summarized four design principles and 25 implementation strategies used by faculty and cooperating teachers, and the competencies teacher educators should exemplify as role models. We will share these design principles and implementation strategies, as well as directions for future research and implications for practice, with our audiences.
Utilizing both the program-wide and program-deep aspects of the technology infusion approach asks every teacher education stakeholder to design learning experiences that model effective technology integration in developmentally appropriate ways. To achieve the goal of technology infusion, colleges and schools of education should continuously support all teacher educators’ development in technology integration competencies, provide targeted professional learning opportunities to all teacher educators on how to design learning experiences that model effective and content-specific technology integration, connect teacher candidate preparation with inservice teacher professional development for synergistic impacts, and establish ongoing and mutually beneficial partnerships with PK-12 schools. Our session will share how to design the learning experiences that model effective technology use that will contribute to building and developing technology-infused teacher preparation programs.
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