Edtech Solutions
Network Summit
Edtech Advocacy &
Policy Summit

Preparation to Teach in Technology-Rich K-12 Classroom Environments

Change display time — Currently: Central Daylight Time (CDT) (Event time)
Location: Virtual
Experience live: All-Access Package Year-Round PD Package Virtual Lite
Watch recording: All-Access Package Year-Round PD Package Virtual Lite

Listen and learn : Research paper
Lecture presentation

Dr. Torrey Trust  
Jenna Conan Simpson  

In today’s schools, the ability to integrate technology is a necessary, crucial skill. This research study examined the preparation of preservice teachers to teach with technology and the gap between the preparation received in their teacher education programs and what they needed to be able to do to be successful.

Audience: Professional developers, Teacher education/higher ed faculty, Technology coordinators/facilitators
Attendee devices: Devices not needed
Topic: Teacher education
Subject area: Higher education, Preservice teacher education
ISTE Standards: For Educators:
  • Set professional learning goals to explore and apply pedagogical approaches made possible by technology and reflect on their effectiveness.
  • Stay current with research that supports improved student learning outcomes, including findings from the learning sciences.
  • Manage the use of technology and student learning strategies in digital platforms, virtual environments, hands-on makerspaces or in the field.
Additional detail: Graduate student

Proposal summary


The TPACK framework is a technology integration framework identifying the types of knowledge that teachers need in order to successfully integrate technology: technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2012; Rodgers, 2018). TPACK is represented by a graphical model similar to a venn diagram that illustrates three overlapping circles. Each of the circles is one of the areas of TPACK, with the sections where they overlap representing technological pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and technological content knowledge. The middle section where all three circles overlap is TPACK, or technological pedagogical content knowledge, which shows a fully integrated understanding of how to effectively teach with technology (Mishra & Koehler, 2012; Rodgers, 2018). According to Mitchell et al., TPACK “challenges teachers to think deeply about how content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge are interrelated.... Many teachers consider technology something that is added after content and pedagogy is well denied, rather than creating, maintaining, and reestablishing a dynamic equilibrium among all components” (2018, p. 357). Learning how to utilize and apply the TPACK framework is beneficial for teachers and helps them become successful at integrating technology with pedagogy and content. Developing preservice teachers’ TPACK is considered by many researchers to be an important aspect of teacher preparation programs and something that should be integrated throughout all content and methods courses (Foulger et al., 2017; Joo et al., 2017; Mitchell et al., 2018; Tondeur et al., 2015). TPACK can positively influence teachers’ perceptions of technology in the classroom as well as their confidence and skill with utilizing technologies. Future teachers must be equipped with the necessary technological knowledge, as well as the skills to integrate that knowledge with content and pedagogy, in order to be effective in their future technology-rich classrooms.


This study is a phenomenological qualitative study that employed survey and interview research approaches to establish how technology skills are being addressed in educator preparation programs and how new teachers are utilizing technology in their classrooms. The survey questions consist of structured and open-ended questions, and the interviews were semi-structured interviews. A two-phase approach was utilized to examine the technology integration behaviors of new teachers and understand how well they feel their preservice experiences prepared them for the classroom. Initially, an online survey was distributed to new K-12 teachers via a variety of digital channels. From these respondents, a group of teachers participated in a follow-up interview over Zoom. Data collected through the online survey and interviews was analyzed and summarized into themes. This data included classroom technology integration strategies, use of technology by the teachers’ students, personal confidence using technology, teacher education program technology preparation courses and activities, as well as technology integration opportunities during field experiences. This approach provides the field with a better understanding of whether there is a described relationship between preservice teacher preparation and actual technology use in the classroom during the first three years of teaching.


The goal of this study is to increase knowledge about the gap identified in the literature between new teachers’ preparation to teach with technology and what they need to be successful in their classroom. Three major themes emerged from the data:
1. There is a disconnect between teacher preparation programs and today’s classrooms regarding technology.
2. New teachers are not confident with integrating technology when they enter the classroom, but they are more confident after one to three years teaching.
3. More hands-on experience with technology and technology training is needed for preservice teachers.
The results of this study will help teacher education programs as they design their programs and learning experiences for their preservice teachers. It will also help them understand how to help their teacher educators better prepare preservice teachers, as well as inform considerations about preservice teachers’ field placements. Finally, the study will benefit district and school administrators because it will help them understand how their new teachers were prepared and what areas related to technology they may still need training and support with.


Existing research in the area of preservice teachers and technology focuses on preservice teachers’ experiences as students during their teacher preparation programs but does not consider their experiences once they enter their own classrooms and how their experiences did or did not prepare them to teach in technology-infused classroom environments (Admiraal et al., 2017; Kale & Akcaoglu, 2017; Ketsman, 2019; Mouza et al., 2017; Parra et al., 2019; Tondeur et al., 2017). This study addresses that need by examining the gap between what teachers are taught in teacher preparation programs and what they find they actually need to know to successfully teach in technology-rich classrooms. Further, many studies consider preservice teachers’ TPACK and technology acceptance, but few studies address how the experiences in their teacher preparation program contribute to these factors (Bai, 2019; Baran et al., 2019; Joo et al., 2016; Mouza et al., 2017; Szeto & Cheng, 2017; Tondeur et al., 2017). There is a paucity of research examining the most effective way to prepare preservice teachers to teach with technology, whether that be technology-infused or blended content and methods courses, stand-alone technology courses, technology-rich practicum and student teaching experiences, or some combination of all of these (Gokcearslan et al., 2017; Mouza et al., 2017; Parra et al., 2019; Reese et al., 2016). In addition to the need to study the best ways to teach technology integration and to investigate the preparedness of preservice teachers when they enter the field, recent changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have accelerated technological changes in education in ways that are having an enormous impact on the skills teachers need to be successful. COVID-19 forced the majority of schools worldwide to move to distance learning in a matter of days or weeks, and most schools are still in some form of distance, hybrid or blended model. Although the need for distance education is likely to decrease over time, many education leaders predict that blended, hybrid, and some distance education are here to stay (Afshan & Ahmed, 2020; Herold, 2021; Modan, 2020; Moore-Adams et al., 2016; Schwartz et al., 2020; Schwartz & Hill, 202). Knowledge of how to use technology in teaching is no longer just nice to have; it is a requirement to function as a teacher (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2017). All preservice teachers need to be prepared with the knowledge and skills to teach in classrooms with 1:1 technology as well as blended and distance settings. This study addresses these needs by looking at whether teacher preparation programs adequately teach the knowledge and skills today’s teachers need to teach in 1:1, blended, and distance classroom environments.


Abdo Qasem, A., & Viswanathappa, G. (2016). Blended learning approach to develop the teachers'
TPACK. Contemporary Educational Technology, 7(3), 264-276.
Admiraal, W., van Vugt, F., Kranenburg, F., Koster, B., Smit, B., Wijers, S., & Lockhorst, D. (2017).
Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into K-12 instruction: Evaluation of a technology-infused approach. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(1), 105-120. doi:10.1080/1475939X.2016.1163283
Afshan, G., & Ahmed, A. (2020). Distance learning is here to stay: Shall we reorganize ourselves for the
post-covid-19 world? Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care, 24(5). doi:10.35975/apic.v24i5.1353
Ames, C. (2017). Teacher perceptions of factors influencing technology integration in K-12 schools
Master’s thesis, Utah State University
Andre, K. (2017). Instructional coaching and educational technology in California public K-12 school
districts Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California
Arpaci, I., & Basol, B. (2020). The impact of preservice teachers' cognitive and technological perceptions
on their continuous intention to use flipped classroom. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 3505-3514. doi:10.1007/s10639-020-10104-8
Ata, R., & Cevik, M. (2019). Exploring relationships between Kolb's learning styles and mobile learning
readiness of pre-service teachers: A mixed study. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 1351-1377. doi:10.1007/s10639-018-9835-y
Awofala, A. O., Akinoso, S. O., & Fatade, A. O. (2017). Attitudes toward computer and computer self-
efficacy as predictors of preservice mathematics teachers' computer anxiety. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 10(3), 91-108.
Bai, H. (2019). Preparing teacher education students to integrate mobile learning into elementary
education. Tech Trends, 63, 723-733. doi:10.1007/s11528-019-00424-z
Bakir, N. (2016). Technology and teacher education: A brief glimpse of the research and practice that
have shaped the field. TechTrends, 60, 21-29. doi:10.1007/s11528-015-0013-4
Banas, J. R., & York, C. S. (2014). Authentic learning exercises as a means to influence preservice
teachers' technology integration self-efficacy and intentions to integrate technology. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(6), 728-746.
Baran, E., Canbazoglu Bilici, S., Albayrak Sari, A., & Tondeur, J. (2019). Investigating the impact of teacher
education strategies on preservice teachers' TPACK. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 357-370. doi:10.1111/bjet.12565
Baran, E., Uygun, E., & Altan, T. (2017). Examining preservice teachers' criteria for evaluating educational
mobile apps. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(8), 1117-1141. doi:10.1177/0735633116649376
Bardakci, S., & Fatih Alkan, M. (2019). Investigation of Turkish preservice teachers' intentions to use IWB
in terms of technological and pedagogical aspects. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 2887-2907. doi:10.1007/s10639-019-09904-4
Bardakci, S., & Kocadag Unver, T. (2020). Preservice ICT teachers' technology metaphors in the margin of
technological determinism. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 905-925. doi:10.1007/s10629-019-09997-x
Baydas, O., & Goktas, Y. (2017). A model of preservice teachers' intentions to use ICT in future lessons.
Interactive Learning Environments, 25(7), 930-945. doi:10.1080/10494820.2016.1232277
Baydas, O., & Yilmaz, R. M. (2018). Pre-service teachers' intention to adopt mobile learning: A
motivational model. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(1), 137-152. doi:10.1111/bjet.12521
Berg, G. A. (2016). distance learning. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from
Brenner, A. M., & Brill, J. M. (2016). Investigating practices in teacher education that promote and inhibit
technology integration transfer in early career teachers. TechTrends, 60, 136-144. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0025-8
Cavanaugh, C., & Deweese, A. (2020). Understand the professional learning and support needs of
educators during the initial weeks of pandemic school closures through search terms and content use. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 233-238.
Connelly, L. M. (2016). Trustworthiness in qualitative research. In Gale Academic.
Council for the Accreditation of Education Preparation Standards. (2013). Council for the Accreditation of
Teacher Preparation. Retrieved from
Cullen, T. A., & Karademir, T. (2018). Technology experiences of student interns in a one to one mobile
program. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 10(2), 20-35. doi:10.4018/IJMBL.2018040103
Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects. doi:10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
Devault, G. (2019). Establishing trustworthiness in qualitative research. In The Balance. Retrieved from
Dincer, S. (2018). Are preservice teachers really literate enough to integrate technology in their
classroom practice? Determining the technology literacy level of preservice teachers. Education and Information Technologies, 23, 2699-2718. doi:10.1007/s10639-018-9737-z
Dong, C., & Mertala, P. (2020). Two worlds collide? The role of Chinese traditions and Western
influences in Chinese preservice teachers' perceptions of appropriate technology use. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/bjet.12990
educational technology. (2021). In Oxford English Dictionary.
Education: From disruption to recovery (2020). In UNESCO. Retrieved from
Englehardt, J., & Brown, C. P. (2019). Vertical and horizontal discourse: A bernsteinian perspective of
preservice teachers' conceptualizations of using iPads in early elementary teaching environments. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 33(3), 430-445. doi:10.1080/02568543.2019.1608337
Esteve-Mon, F. M., Cela-Ranilla, J., & Gisbert-Cervera, M. (2016). ETeach3D: Designing a 3D virtual
environment for evaluating the digital competence of preservice teachers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(6), 816-839. doi:10.1177/0735633116637191
Ferlazzo, L. (2021). Virtual, hybrid, & concurrent are three Words I never expected to use. EdWeek.
Retrieved from
Fisher, D., Frey, N., Almarode, J., & Henderson-Rosser, A. (2021). The quick guide to simultaneous, hybrid,
and blended learning. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin: A SAGE Publishing Company.
Foulger, T. S., Graziano, K. J., Schmidt-Crawford, D. A., & Slykhuis, D. A. (2017). Teacher educator
technology competencies. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 25(4), 413-448.
Funkhouser, B. J., & Mouza, C. (2013). Drawing on technology: An investigation of preservice teacher
beliefs in the context of an introductory educational technology course. Computers & Education, 62, 271-285. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.005
Galloway, A. (2005). Non-probability sampling. Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 859-864.
Gokcearslan, S., Karademir, T., & Tugrul Korucu, A. (2017). Preservice teachers' level of web pedagogical
content knowledge: Assessment by individual innovativeness. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(1), 70-94. doi:10.1177/0735633116642593
Graham, C. R., Borup, J., Pulham, E., & Larsen, R. (2019). K-12 blended teaching readiness: Model and
instrument development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 51(3), 239-258. doi:10.1080/15391523.2019.1586601
Graham, C. R., Borup, J., & Smith, N. B. (2012). Using TPACK as a framework to understand teacher
candidates' technology integration decisions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28, 530-546. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00472.x
Graziano, K. J., Foulger, T. S., Schmidt-Crawford, D. A., & Slykjuis, D. A. (2017). Technology integration and
teacher preparation: The development of teacher educator technology competencies. SITE 2017.
Groff, J. (2013). Technology-rich innovative learning environments. Centre for Educational Research and
Innovation. Retrieved from
Gudmundsdottir, G., & Hathaway, D. M. (2020). "We always make it work": Teachers' agency in the time
of crisis. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 239-250. Retrieved from
Gurley Raulston, C., & Alexiou-Ray, J. Preparing more technology-literate preservice teachers: A changing
paradigm in higher education. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators.
Habowski, T., & Mouza, C. (2014). Pre-service teachers' development of technological content knowledge
(TPACK) in the context of a secondary science teacher education program. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(4), 471-495.
Hager, K. D. (2020). Integrating technology to improve teacher preparation. College Teaching, 68(2), 71-
78. doi:10.1080/87567555.2020/1723475
Hall, J. A., Lei, J., & Want, Q. (2020). The first principles of instruction: An examination of their impact on
preservice teachers' TPACK. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 3115-3142. doi:10.1007/s11423-020-09866-2
Handal, B., Campbell, C., & Perkins, T. (2019). Learning about mobile learning: Pre-service teachers'
perspectives. Tech Trends, 63, 711-722. doi:10.1007/s11528-019-0043
Herold, B. (2021). ‘No going back’ from remote and hybrid learning, districts say. Education Week.
Retrieved from
Herold, B. (2016). What it takes to move from 'passive' to 'active' tech use in K-12 schools. The Education
Hicks, S., & Bose, D. (2019). Designing teacher preparation courses: Integrating mobile technology,
program standards, and course outcomes. Tech Trends, 63, 734-740. doi:10.1007/s11528-019-00416-z
Hofer, M., & Grandgenett, N. (2012). TPACK development in teacher education. Journal of Research on
Technology in Education, 45(1), 83-106. doi:10.1080/15391523.2012.10782598
Holland, D. D., & Piper, R. T. (2016). Testing a technology integration education model for millenial
preservice teachers: Exploring the moderating relationships of goals, feedback, task value, and self-regulation among motivation and technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge competencies. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(2), 196-224. doi:10.1177/0735633115615129
InTASC model core teaching standards and learning progressions for teachers. (2013). s Interstate
Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC). Retrieved from
International Society for Technology in Education. (2020). ISTE standards for students. Eugene, OR:
International Society for Technology in Education.
International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE standards for teachers. Eugene, OR:
International Society for Technology in Education.
Joo, Y., Park, S., & Lim, E. (2018). Factors influencing preservice teachers' intention to use technology:
TPACK, teacher self-efficacy, and technology acceptance model. Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 48-59.
Jung, J., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2020). Course-level modeling of preservice teacher learning of
technology integration. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(2), 555-571. doi:10.1111/bjet.12840
Kale, U., & Akcaoglu, M. (2018). The role of relevance in future teachers' utility value and interest
toward technology. Education Technology Research and Development, 66, 283-311. doi:10.1007/s11423-017-9547-9
Kalonde, G., & Mousa, R. (2016). Technology familiarization to preservice teachers: Factors that
influence teacher educators' technology decisions. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(2), 236-255. doi:10.1177/0047239515616965
Karakoyun, F., & Lindberg, O. J. (2020). Preservice teachers' views about the twenty-first century skills: A
qualitative survey study in Turkey and Sweden. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 2353-2369. doi:10.1007/s10639-020-10148-w
Karki, T., Keinanen, H., Tuominen, A., Hoikkala, M., Matikainen, E., & Maijala, H. (2018). Meaningful
learning with mobile devices: Pre-service class teachers' experiences of mobile learning in the outdoors. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(2), 251-263. doi:10.1080/1475939X.2018.1430061
Kazakoff, E. R., Macaruso, P., & Hook, P. (2018). Efficacy of a blended learning approach to elementary
school reading instruction for students who are English learners. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66, 429-449. doi:10.1007/s11423-017-9565-7
Ketsman, O. (2019). Perspectives of pre-service teachers about blended learning in technology
integration courses. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 11(4), 15-31. doi:10.4018/IJMBL.2019100102
Kimmons, R., & Hall, C. (2018). How useful are our models? Pre-service and practicing teacher
evaluations of technology integration models. Tech Trends, 62, 29-36. doi:10.1007/s11528-017-0227-8
Kuenzi, J. J. (2018). Teacher preparation policies and issues in the higher education act. In Congressional
Research Service. Retrieved from
Li, K., Li, Y., & Franklin, T. (2016). Preservice teachers' intention to adopt technology in their future
classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(7), 946-966. doi:10.1177/0735633116641694
Lim, J., & Newby, T. J. (2020). Preservice teachers' web 2.0 experiences and perceptions on web 2.0 as a
personal learning environment. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 32, 234-260. doi:10.1007/s12528-019-09227-w
Liu, S. (2012). A multivariate model of factors influencing technology use by preservice teachers during
practice teaching. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 137-149.
Mac Mahon, B., O Gradaigh, S., & Ni Ghuidhir, S. (2018). From iTE to NQT: Evaluating newly qualified
teachers' use of mobile technology in their first two years of teaching. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 10(2), 8-19. doi:10.4018/IJMBL.2018040102
Maderick, J. A., Zhang, S., Hartley, K., & Marchand, G. (2016). Preservice teachers and self-assessing
digital competence. Journal of Education Computing Research, 54(3), 326-351. doi:10.1177/0735633115620432
Maxwell, C. (2016). What Blended Learning Is - And Isn't. In Blended Learning Universe. Retrieved from
Meeuwse, K. (2016). Early literacy teachers' experiences with personalized professional development for
technology to change pedagogical practice Doctoral dissertation, Lamar University, Beaumont
Menon, D., Chandrasekhar, M., Kosztin, D., & Steinhoff, D. C. (2020). Impact of mobile technology-based
physics curriculum on preservice elementary teachers' technology self-efficacy. Science Teacher Education, 104, 252-289. doi:10.1002/sce.21554
Miller, R. P. (2013). Inductive coding. In Development of a Proposal for a Technology Assessment Report.
Retrieved from
Minicozzi, L. L. (2018). IPads and pre-service teaching: Exploring the use of iPads in K-2 classrooms. The
International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 35(3), 160-180. doi:10.1108/IJILT-05-2017-0032
Mishra, P., & Koeler, M. (2012). TPACK Explained. In Retrieved from
Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Kereluik, K. (2009). The song remains the same: Looking back to the future of
educational technology. TechTrends, 53(5), 48-53.
Mitchell, C., Friedrich, L., & Appleget, C. (2019). Preservice teachers' blogging: Collaboration across
universities for meaningful technology integration. Teaching Education, 30(4), 356-372. doi:10.1080/10476210.2018.1486815
Modan, N. (2020). Fast forward: Hybrid models could prove effective. Are they here to stay? K-12 Dive.
Retrieved from
Moore-Adams, B. L., Jones, W., & Cohen, J. (2016). Learning to teach online: A systematic review of the
literature on K-12 teacher preparation for teaching online. Distance Education, 37(3), 333-348. doi:10.1080/01587919.2016.1232158
Mouza, C., Karchmer-Klein, R., Nandakumar, R., Yilmaz Ozden, S., & Hu, L. (2014). Investigating the
impact of an integrated approach to the development of preservice teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers & Education, 71, 206-221. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.09.020
Mouza, C., Nandakumar, R., Yilmaz Ozden, S., & Karchmer-Klein, R. (2017). A longitudinal examination of
preservice teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge in the context of undergraduate teacher education. Action in Teacher Education, 39(2), 153-171. doi:10.1080/01626620.2016.1248301
Mouza, C., Yang, H., Pan, Y., & Yilmaz Ozden, S. (2017). Resetting educational technology coursework for
pre-service teachers: A computational thinking approach to the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Austrialasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 61-76. doi:10.14742/ajet.3521
National education technology plan (2017). In United States Department of Education. Retrieved from
Ndlovu, M., Ramdhany, V., Spangenberg, E. D., & Govender, R. (2020). Preservice teachers' beliefs and
intentions about integrating mathematics teaching and learning ICTs in their classrooms. ZDM Mathematics Education, 52, 1365-1380. doi:10.1007/s11858-020-01186-2
Nelson, M. J., & Hawk, N. A. (2020). The impact of field experiences on prospective preservice teachers'
technology integration beliefs and intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 89. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2019.103006
Next Generation Science Standards (2021),
Nguyen, G. N., & Bower, M. (2018). Novice teacher technology-enhanced learning design practices: The
case of the silent pedagogy. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(6), 1027-1043. doi:10.1111/bjet.12681
NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition. (2015). New Media Consortium.
O'Scanaill, M. (2021). How are schools responding to increased 1:1 device programs?. In DyKnow.
Retrieved from
Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., & Kimmons, R. (2020). The K-12 educational technology handbook. EdTech
Books. Retrieved from
Parkman, S., Litz, D., & Gromik, N. (2018). Examining pre-service teachers' acceptance of technology-rich
learning environments: A UAE case study. Education and Information Technologies, 23, 1253-1275. doi:10.1007/s10639-017-9665-3
Parra, J., Raynor, C., Osanloo, A., & Guillaume, R. O. (2019). (Re)Imagining an undergraduate integrating
technology with teaching course. Tech Trends, 62, 68-78. doi:10.1007/s11528-018-0362-x
ProjectUX, . (2018). Themes don’t just emerge — Coding the qualitative data. In Project UX. Retrieved
Ratvitch, S. M., & Carl, N. (2020). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and
methodological (2nd ed.). N.p.: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Reese, J. A., Bicheler, R., & Robinson, C. (2016). Field experiences using iPads: Impact of experiences on
preservice teachers' beliefs. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 26(1), 96-111. doi:10.1177/1057083715616441
Reimers, F. M., & Schleicher, A. (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19
pandemic of 2020. In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from
Rodgers, D. (2018). The TPACK framework explained. In Schoology. Retrieved from
Ruhalahti, S., Korhonen, A., & Rasi, P. (2017). Authentic, dialogical knowledge construction: A blended
and mobile teacher education programme. Educational Research, 59(4), 373-390. doi:10.1080/00131881.2017.1369858
Sadaf, A., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2015). An investigation of the factors that influence preservice
teachers’ intentions and integration of Web 2.0 tools. Educational Technology Research and Development. doi:10.1007/s11423-015-9410-9
Sang, G., Valcke, M., van Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Student teachers' thinking processes and ICT
integration: Predictors of prospective teaching behaviors with educational technology. Computers & Education, 54, 103-112. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.07.010
Schaffhauser, D. (2021). Forever changed: Education predictions for 2021. In THE Journal. Retrieved from
Scherer, R., Tondeur, J., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2018). The importance of attitudes toward technology for
pre-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge: Comparing structural equation modeling approaches. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 67-80. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.003
Schwartz, H. L., Grant, D., Diliberti, M., Hunter, G. P., & Messan Setodji, C. (2020). Remote learning Is
here to stay: Results from the first American school district panel survey. RAND Corporation. doi:10.7249/RRA956-1
Schwartz, H., & Hill, P. (2021). Analysis: Survey of district leaders shows online learning is here to stay.
Some ways of making It work for students beyond the pandemic. In The 74. Retrieved from
Section 2: Teaching with Technology (2017). In U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational
Technology. Retrieved from
Senturk, C. (2020). Effects of the blended learning model on preservice teachers' academic
achievements and twenty-first century skills. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 35-48. doi:10.1007/s10629-020-10340-y
Singer, N. (2021). Online schools are here to stay, even after the pandemic. In The New York Times.
Retrieved from
Staus, N., Gillow-Wiles, H., & Niess, M. (2014). TPACK development in a three-year online masters
program: How do teacher perceptions align with classroom practice? Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(3), 333-360.
Szeto, E., & Yan-Ni Cheng, A. (2017). Pedagogies across subjects: What are preservice teachers' TPACK
patterns of integrating technology in practice? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(3), 346-373. doi:10.1177/0735633116667370
Technology in schools: Suggestions, tools, and guidelines for assessing technology in elementary and
secondary education (2002). In National Forum on Education. Retrieved from
Tezer, M., & Beyoglu, D. (2018). How do preservice teachers' readiness and attitudes towards mobile
learning affect their acceptance of mobile learning systems? TEM Journal, 7(4), 875-885. doi:10.18421/TEM74-28
Tomczyk, L., Szotkowski, R., Fabis, A., Wasinski, A., Chudy, S., & Neumeister, P. (2017). Selected aspects
of conditions in the use of new media as an important part of the training of teachers in the Czech Republic and Poland - differences, risks and threats. Education and Information Technologies, 22, 747-767. doi:10.1007/s10639-015-9455-8
Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Pynoo, B., van Braak, J., Fraeyman, N., & Erstad, O. (2017). Developing a
validated instrument to measure preservice teachers' ICT competencies: Meeting the demands of the 21st century. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(2), 462-472. doi:10.1111/bjet.12380
Tondeur, J. (2018). Enhancing future teachers' competencies for technology integration in education:
Turning theory into practice. International Journal of Media, Technology & Lifelong Learning, 14(2), 216-224.
Tondeur, J., Forkosh-Baruch, A., Prestridge, S., Albion, P., & Edirisinghe, S. (2016). Responding to
challenges in teacher professional development for ICT integration in education. Educational Technology & Society, 19(3), 110-120.
Tondeur, J., Howard, S. K., & Yang, J. (2021). One size does not fit all: Towards an adaptive model to
develop preservice teachers' digital competencies. Computers in Human Behavior, 116. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2020.106659
Tondeur, J., Pareja Roblin, N., van Braak, J., Voogt, J., & Prestridge, S. (2017). Preparing beginning
teachers for technology integration in education: Ready for take-off? Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(2), 157-177. doi:10.1080/1475939X.2016.1193556
Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Baran, E., Siddiq, F., Valtonen, T., & Sointu, E. (2019). Teacher educators as
gatekeepers: Preparing the next generation of teachers for technology integration in education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(3), 1189-1209. doi:10.1111/bjet.12748
Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2017). A comprehensive investigation of TPACK within
pre-service teachers' ICT profiles: Mind the gap! Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 46-60.
Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2020). Enhancing pre-service teachers' technological
pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): A mixed-methods study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 319-343. doi:10.1007/s11423-019-09692-1
Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship
between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65, 555-575. doi:10.1007/s11423-016-9481-2
Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing
pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education, 59, 134-144. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.009
Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Siddiq, F., & Scherer, R. (2016). Time for a new approach to prepare future
teachers for educational technology use: Its meaning and measurement. Computers & Education, 94, 134-150. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.009
Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Pynoo, B., van Braak, J., Fraeyman, N., & Erstad, O. (2017). Developing a
validated instrument to measure preservice teachers' ICT competencies: Meeting the demands of the 21st century. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(2), 462-472. doi:10.1111/bjet.12380
Trust, T., & Whalen, J. (2020). Should teachers be trained in emergency remote teaching? Lessons
learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 189-199.
Tsai, P., & Tsai, C. (2019). Preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching using mobile devices and the
quality of technology integration in lesson plans. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 614-625. doi:10.1111/bjet.12613
University of Virginia School of Education and Human Development. (2020). Technology as a pandemic
recovery resource for teachers. In Ed Tech Evidence Exchange. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology (2017), Future Ready Learning:
Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology (2010), National Education Technology
Plan, Washington, D.C.
Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Sormunen, K., Dillon, P., & Sointu, E. (2015). The impact of
authentic learning experiences with ICT on pre-service teachers' intentions to use ICT for teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 81, 49-58. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.09.008
Valtonen, T., Sointu, E., Kukkonen, J., Makitalo, K., Hoang, N., Hakkinen, P., ... Tondeur, J. (2019).
Examining pre-service teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge as evolving knowledge domains: A longitudinal approach. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35, 491-502. doi:10.1111/jcal.12353
What is successful technology integration? (2007). In Edutopia. Retrieved from
Young, J. (2020). Five post-pandemic predictions for online and blended learning. In RedefinED. Retrieved
Young, J. R., Young, J. L., & Hamilton, C. (2013). The use of confidence intervals as a meta-analytic lens to
summarize the effects of teacher education technology courses on preservice teacher TPACK. Journal of Research on Technology Courses on Preservice Teacher TPACK, 46(2), 149-172. doi:10.1080/15391423.2013.10782617
Zipke, M., Carey Ingle, J., & Moorehead, T. (2019). The effects of modeling the use of technology with
pre-service teachers. Computers in the Schools, 36(3), 205-221. doi:10.1080/07380569.2019.1640038

More [+]


Jenna Conan Simpson, All Saints' Episcopal School
Graduate student

Jenna Conan Simpson is the Director of Instructional Technology at All Saints’ Episcopal School in Fort Worth, Texas and a Learning Technologies Ph.D. candidate. In addition to leading her school’s move to remote learning in 2020, providing professional development and managing all digital learning programs and student devices, she has taught technology and computer science courses schoolwide. She has her master’s degree in Educational Technology and is currently finishing up her Ph.D. in Learning Technologies. She is passionate about technology’s potential to transform classrooms to be more engaging and student-centered and to make teachers’ jobs easier.

People also viewed

Infusing ISTE Standards in Preservice Education: Prototyping Activities of Competency-Based Assessments
Tuesday Mainstage
Wednesday Mainstage